Four Ways to Compile C for Windows

I primarily work on and develop for unix-like operating systems — Linux in particular. However, when it comes to desktop applications, most potential users are on Windows. Rather than develop on Windows, which I’d rather avoid, I’ll continue developing, testing, and debugging on Linux while keeping portability in mind. Unfortunately every option I’ve found for building Windows C programs has some significant limitations. These limitations advise my approach to portability and restrict the C language features used by the program for all platforms.

As of this writing I’ve identified four different practical ways to build C applications for Windows. This information will definitely become further and further out of date as this article ages, so if you’re visiting from the future take a moment to look at the date. Except for LLVM shaking things up recently, development tooling on unix-like systems has had the same basic form for the past 15 years (i.e. dominated by GCC). While Visual C++ has been around for more than two decades, the tooling on Windows has seen more churn by comparison.

Before I get into the specifics, let me point out a glaring problem common to all four: Unicode arguments and filenames. Microsoft jumped the gun and adopted UTF-16 early. UTF-16 is a kludge, a worst of all worlds, being a variable length encoding (surrogate pairs), backwards incompatible (unlike UTF-8), and having byte-order issues (BOM). Most Win32 functions that accept strings generally come in two flavors, ANSI and UTF-16. The standard, portable C library functions wrap the ANSI-flavored functions. This means portable C programs can’t interact with Unicode filenames. They must call the non-portable, Windows-specific versions. This includes main itself, which is only handed ANSI-truncated arguments.

Compare this to unix-like systems, which generally adopted UTF-8, but rather as a convention than as a hard rule. The operating system doesn’t know or care about Unicode. Program arguments and filenames are just zero-terminated bytestrings. Implicitly decoding these as UTF-8 would be a mistake anyway. What happens when the encoding isn’t valid?

This doesn’t have to be a problem on Windows. A Windows standard C library could connect to Windows’ Unicode-flavored functions and encode to/from UTF-8 as needed, allowing portable programs to maintain the bytestring illusion. It’s only that none of the existing standard C libraries do it this way.


Of course my first natural choice is MinGW, specifically the Mingw-w64 fork. It’s GCC ported to Windows. You can continue relying on GCC-specific features when you need them. It’s got all the core language features up through C11, plus the common extensions. It’s probably packaged by your Linux distribution of choice, making it trivial to cross-compile programs and libraries from Linux — and with Wine you can even execute them on x86. Like regular GCC, it outputs GDB-friendly DWARF debugging information, so you can debug applications with GDB (my favorite).

If I’m using Mingw-w64 on Windows, I prefer to do so from inside Cygwin. Since it provides a complete POSIX environment, it maximizes portability for the whole tool chain. This isn’t strictly required.

However, it has one big flaw. Unlike unix-like systems, Windows doesn’t supply a system standard C library. That’s the compiler’s job. But Mingw-w64 doesn’t have one. Instead it links against msvcrt.dll, which isn’t officially supported by Microsoft. It just happens to exist on modern Windows installations. Since it’s not supported, it’s way out of date and doesn’t support much of C99, let alone C11. A lot of these problems are patched over by the compiler, but if you’re relying on Mingw-w64, you still have to stick to some C89 library features, such as limiting yourself to the C89 printf specifiers.

Update: Mārtiņš Možeiko has pointed out __USE_MINGW_ANSI_STDIO, an undocumented feature that fixes the printf family.

Visual C++

The behemoth usually considered in this situation is Visual Studio and the Visual C++ build tools. I strongly prefer open source development tools, and Visual Studio obviously the least open source option, but at least it’s cost-free these days. Now, I have absolutely no interest in Visual Studio, but fortunately the Visual C++ compiler and associated build tools can be used standalone, supporting both C and C++.

Included is a “vcvars” batch file — vcvars64.bat for x64. Execute that batch file in a cmd.exe console and the Visual C++ command line build tools will be made available in that console and in any programs executed from it (your editor). It includes the compiler (cl.exe), linker (link.exe), assembler (ml64.exe), disassembler (dumpbin.exe), and more. It also includes a mostly POSIX-complete make called nmake.exe. All these tools are noisy and print a copyright banner on every invocation, so get used to passing -nologo every time, which suppresses some of it.

When I said behemoth, I meant it. In my experience it literally takes hours (unattended) to install Visual Studio 2015. The good news is you don’t actually need it all anymore. The build tools are available standalone. While it’s still a larger and slower installation process than it really should be, it’s is much more reasonable to install. It’s good enough that I’d even say I’m comfortable relying on it for Windows builds.

That being said, it’s not without its flaws. Microsoft has never announced any plans to support C99. They only care about C++, with C as a second class citizen. Since C++11 incorporated most of C99 and Microsoft supports C++11, Visual Studio 2015 very nearly supports all of C99. The only things missing as far as I can tell are variable length arrays (VLAs), complex numbers, and C99’s array parameter declarators, since none of these were adopted by C++. Some C99 features are considered extensions (as they would be for C89), so you’ll also get warnings about them, which can be disabled.

The command line interface (option flags, intermediates, etc.) isn’t quite reconcilable with the unix-like ecosystem (i.e. GCC, Clang), so you’ll need separate Makefiles, or you’ll need to use a build system that generates Visual C++ Makefiles.

Debugging is a major problem. Visual C++ outputs separate .pdb program database files, which aren’t usable from GDB. Visual Studio has a built-in debugger, though it’s not included in the standalone Visual C++ build tools. I’m still searching for a decent debugging solution for this scenario. I tried WinDbg, but I can’t stand it.

In general the output code performance is on par with GCC and Clang, so you’re not really gaining or losing performance with Visual C++.


Unsurprisingly, Clang has been ported to Windows. It’s like Mingw-w64 in that you get the same features and interface across platforms.

Unlike Mingw-w64, it doesn’t link against msvcrt.dll. Instead it relies directly on the official Windows SDK. You’ll basically need to install the Visual C++ build tools as if were going to build with Visual C++. This means no practical cross-platform builds and you’re still relying on the proprietary Microsoft toolchain. In the past you even had to use Microsoft’s linker, but LLVM now provides its own.

It generates GDB-friendly DWARF debug information (in addition to CodeView) so in theory you can debug with GDB again. I haven’t given this a thorough evaluation yet.

Pelles C

Finally there’s Pelles C. It’s cost-free but not open source. It’s a reasonable, small install that includes a full IDE with an integrated debugger and command line tools. It has its own C library and Win32 SDK with the most complete C11 support around. It also supports OpenMP 3.1. All in all it’s pretty nice and is something I wouldn’t be afraid to rely upon for Windows builds.

Like Visual C++, it has a couple of “povars” batch files to set up the right environment, which includes a C compiler, linker, assembler, etc. The compiler interface mostly mimics cl.exe, though there are far fewer code generation options. The make program, pomake.exe, mimics nmake.exe, but is even less POSIX-complete. The compiler’s output code performance is also noticeably poorer than GCC, Clang, and Visual C++. It’s definitely a less mature compiler.

It outputs CodeView debugging information, so GDB is of no use. The best solution is to simply use the compiler built into the IDE, which can be invoked directly from the command line. You don’t normally need to code from within the IDE just to use the debugger.

Like Visual C++, it’s Windows only, so cross-compilation isn’t really in the picture.

If performance isn’t of high importance, and you don’t require specific code generation options, then Pelles C is a nice choice for Windows builds.

Other Options

I’m sure there are a few other options out there, and I’d like to hear about them so I can try them out. I focused on these since they’re all cost free and easy to download. If I have to register or pay, then it’s not going to beat these options.

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Chris Wellons