A Survey of $RANDOM

Most Bourne shell clones support a special RANDOM environment variable that evaluates to a random value between 0 and 32,767 (e.g. 15 bits). Assigment to the variable seeds the generator. This variable is an extension and did not appear in the original Unix Bourne shell. Despite this, the different Bourne-like shells that implement it have converged to the same interface, but only the interface. Each implementation differs in interesting ways. In this article we’ll explore how $RANDOM is implemented in various Bourne-like shells.

Unfortunately I was unable to determine the origin of $RANDOM. Nobody was doing a good job tracking source code changes before the mid-1990s, so that history appears to be lost. Bash was first released in 1989, but the earliest version I could find was 1.14.7, released in 1996. KornShell was first released in 1983, but the earliest source I could find was from 1993. In both cases $RANDOM already existed. My guess is that it first appeared in one of these two shells, probably KornShell.

Update: Quentin Barnes has informed me that his 1986 copy of KornShell (a.k.a. ksh86) implements $RANDOM. This predates Bash and makes it likely that this feature originated in KornShell.


Of all the shells I’m going to discuss, Bash has the most interesting history. It never made use use of srand(3) / rand(3) and instead uses its own generator — which is generally what I prefer. Prior to Bash 4.0, it used the crummy linear congruential generator (LCG) found in the C89 standard:

static unsigned long rseed = 1;

static int
brand ()
  rseed = rseed * 1103515245 + 12345;
  return ((unsigned int)((rseed >> 16) & 32767));

For some reason it was naïvely decided that $RANDOM should never produce the same value twice in a row. The caller of brand() filters the output and discards repeats before returning to the shell script. This actually reduces the quality of the generator further since it increases correlation between separate outputs.

When the shell starts up, rseed is seeded from the PID and the current time in seconds. These values are literally summed and used as the seed.

/* Note: not the literal code, but equivalent. */
rseed = getpid() + time(0);

Subshells, which fork and initally share an rseed, are given similar treatment:

rseed = rseed + getpid() + time(0);

Notice there’s no hashing or mixing of these values, so there’s no avalanche effect. That would have prevented shells that start around the same time from having related initial random sequences.

With Bash 4.0, released in 2009, the algorithm was changed to a Park–Miller multiplicative LCG from 1988:

static int
brand ()
  long h, l;

  /* can't seed with 0. */
  if (rseed == 0)
    rseed = 123459876;
  h = rseed / 127773;
  l = rseed % 127773;
  rseed = 16807 * l - 2836 * h;
  return ((unsigned int)(rseed & 32767));

There’s actually a subtle mistake in this implementation compared to the generator described in the paper. This function will generate different numbers than the paper, and it will generate different numbers on different hosts! More on that later.

This algorithm is a much better choice than the previous LCG. There were many more options available in 2009 compared to 1989, but, honestly, this generator is pretty reasonable for this application. Bash is so slow that you’re never practically going to generate enough numbers for the small state to matter. Since the Park–Miller algorithm is older than Bash, they could have used this in the first place.

I considered submitting a patch to switch to something more modern. However, given Bash’s constraints, it’s harder said than done. Portability to weird systems is still a concern, and I expect they’d reject a patch that started making use of long long in the PRNG. They still support pre-ANSI C compilers that don’t have 64-bit arithmetic.

However, what still really could be improved is seeding. In Bash 4.x here’s what it looks like:

static void
seedrand ()
  struct timeval tv;

  gettimeofday (&tv, NULL);
  sbrand (tv.tv_sec ^ tv.tv_usec ^ getpid ());

Seeding is both better and worse. It’s better that it’s seeded from a higher resolution clock (milliseconds), so two shells started close in time have more variation. However, it’s “mixed” with XOR, which, in this case, is worse than addition.

For example, imagine two Bash shells started one millsecond apart. Both tv_usec and getpid() are incremented by one. Those increments are likely to cancel each other out by an XOR, and they end up with the same seed.

Instead, each of those quantities should be hashed before mixing. Here’s a rough example using my triple32() hash (adapted to glorious GNU-style pre-ANSI C):

static unsigned long
triple32 (x)
     unsigned long x;
  x ^= x >> 17;
  x *= 0xed5ad4bbUL;
  x &= 0xffffffffUL;
  x ^= x >> 11;
  x *= 0xac4c1b51UL;
  x &= 0xffffffffUL;
  x ^= x >> 15;
  x *= 0x31848babUL;
  x &= 0xffffffffUL;
  x ^= x >> 14;
  return x;

static void
seedrand ()
  struct timeval tv;

  gettimeofday (&tv, NULL);
  sbrand (hash32 (tv.tv_sec) ^
          hash32 (hash32 (tv.tv_usec) ^ getpid ()));

I had said there’s there’s a mistake in the Bash implementation of Park–Miller. Take a closer look at the types and the assignment to rseed:

  /* The variables */
  long h, l;
  unsigned long rseed;

  /* The assignment */
  rseed = 16807 * l - 2836 * h;

The result of the substraction can be negative, and that negative value is converted to unsigned long. The C standard says ULONG_MAX + 1 is added to make the value positive. ULONG_MAX varies by platform — typicially long is either 32 bits or 64 bits — so the results also vary. Here’s how the paper defined it:

  unsigned long test;

  test = 16807 * l - 2836 * h;
  if (test > 0)
    rseed = test;
    rseed = test + 2147483647;

As far as I can tell, this mistake doesn’t hurt the quality of the generator.

$ 32/bash -c 'RANDOM=127773; echo $RANDOM $RANDOM'
29932 13634

$ 64/bash -c 'RANDOM=127773; echo $RANDOM $RANDOM'
29932 29115


In contrast to Bash, Zsh is the most straightforward: defer to rand(3). Its $RANDOM can return the same value twice in a row, assuming that rand(3) does.

randomgetfn(UNUSED(Param pm))
    return rand() & 0x7fff;

randomsetfn(UNUSED(Param pm), zlong v)
    srand((unsigned int)v);

A cool feature is that means you could override it if you wanted with a custom generator.

    return 4; // chosen by fair dice roll.
              // guaranteed to be random.


$ gcc -shared -fPIC -o rand.so rand.c
$ LD_PRELOAD=./rand.so zsh -c 'echo $RANDOM $RANDOM $RANDOM'
4 4 4

This trick also applies to the rest of the shells below.

KornShell (ksh)

KornShell originated in 1983, but it was finally released under an open source license in 2005. There’s a clone of KornShell called Public Domain Korn Shell (pdksh) that’s been forked a dozen different ways, but I’ll get to that next.

KornShell defers to rand(3), but it does some additional naïve filtering on the output. When the shell starts up, it generates 10 values from rand(). If any of them are larger than 32,767 then it will shift right by three all generated numbers.

#define RANDMASK 0x7fff

    for (n = 0; n < 10; n++) {
        // Don't use lower bits when rand() generates large numbers.
        if (rand() > RANDMASK) {
            rand_shift = 3;

Why not just look at RAND_MAX? I guess they didn’t think of it.

Update: Quentin Barnes pointed out that RAND_MAX didn’t exist until POSIX standardization in 1988. The constant first appeared in Unix in 1990. This KornShell code either predates the standard or needed to work on systems that predate the standard.

Like Bash, repeated values are not allowed. I suspect one shell got this idea from the other.

    do {
        cur = (rand() >> rand_shift) & RANDMASK;
    } while (cur == last);

Who came up with this strange idea first?

OpenBSD’s Public Domain Korn Shell (pdksh)

I picked the OpenBSD variant of pdksh since it’s the only pdksh fork I ever touch in practice, and its $RANDOM is the most interesting of the pdksh forks — at least since 2014.

Like Zsh, pdksh simply defers to rand(3). However, OpenBSD’s rand(3) is infamously and proudly non-standard. By default it returns non-deterministic, cryptographic-quality results seeded from system entropy (via the misnamed arc4random(3)), à la /dev/urandom. Its $RANDOM inherits this behavior.

    setint(vp, (int64_t) (rand() & 0x7fff));

However, if a value is assigned to $RANDOM in order to seed it, it reverts to its old pre-2014 deterministic generation via srand_deterministic(3).

    srand_deterministic((unsigned int)intval(vp));

OpenBSD’s deterministic rand(3) is the crummy LCG from the C89 standard, just like Bash 3.x. So if you assign to $RANDOM, you’ll get nearly the same results as Bash 3.x and earlier — the only difference being that it can repeat numbers.

That’s a slick upgrade to the old interface without breaking anything, making it my favorite version $RANDOM for any shell.

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Chris Wellons