Recovering Live Data with GDB

I recently ran into a problem where long-running program output was trapped in a C FILE buffer. The program had been running for two days straight printing its results, but the last few kilobytes of output were missing. It wouldn’t output these last bytes until the program completed its day-long (or worse!) cleanup operation and exited. This is easy to fix — and, honestly, the cleanup step was unnecessary anyway — but I didn’t want to start all over and wait two more days to recompute the result.

Here’s a minimal example of the situation. The first loop represents the long-running computation and the infinite loop represents a cleanup job that will never complete.

#include <stdio.h>

    /* Compute output. */
    for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
        printf("%d/%d ", i, i * i);

    /* "Slow" cleanup operation ... */
    for (;;)
    return 0;

Buffered Output Review

Both printf and putchar are C library functions and are usually buffered in some way. That is, each call to these functions doesn’t necessarily send data out of the program. This is in contrast to the POSIX functions read and write, which are unbuffered system calls. Since system calls are relatively expensive, buffered input and output is used to change a large number of system calls on small buffers into a single system call on a single large buffer.

Typically, stdout is line-buffered if connected to a terminal. When the program completes a line of output, the user probably wants to see it immediately. So, if you compile the example program and run it at your terminal you will probably see the output before the program hangs on the infinite loop.

$ cc -std=c99 example.c
$ ./a.out
0/0 1/1 2/4 3/9 4/16 5/25 6/36 7/49 8/64 9/81

However, when stdout is connected to a file or pipe, it’s generally buffered to something like 4kB. For this program, the output will remain empty no matter how long you wait. It’s trapped in a FILE buffer in process memory.

$ ./a.out > output.txt

The primary way to fix this is to use the fflush function, to force the buffer empty before starting a long, non-output operation. Unfortunately for me I didn’t think of this two days earlier.

Debugger to the Rescue

Fortunately there is a way to interrupt a running program and manipulate its state: a debugger. First, find the process ID of the running program (the one writing to output.txt above).

$ pgrep a.out

Now attach GDB, which will pause the program’s execution.

$ gdb ./a.out
Reading symbols from ./a.out...(no debugging symbols found)...done.
gdb> attach 12934
Attaching to program: /tmp/a.out, process 12934
... snip ...
0x0000000000400598 in main ()

From here I could examine the stdout FILE struct and try to extract the buffer contents by hand. However, the easiest thing is to do is perform the call I forgot in the first place: fflush(stdout).

gdb> call fflush(stdout)
$1 = 0
gdb> quit
Detaching from program: /tmp/a.out, process 12934

The program is still running, but the output has been recovered.

$ cat output.txt
0/0 1/1 2/4 3/9 4/16 5/25 6/36 7/49 8/64 9/81

Why Cleanup?

As I said, in my case the cleanup operation was entirely unnecessary, so it would be safe to just kill the program at this point. It was taking a really long time to tear down a humongous data structure (on the order of 50GB) one little node at a time with free. Obviously, the memory would be freed much more quickly by the OS when the program exited.

Freeing memory in the program was only to satisfy Valgrind, since it’s so incredibly useful for debugging. Not freeing the data structure would hide actual memory leaks in Valgrind’s final report. For the real “production” run, I should have disabled cleanup.

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null program

Chris Wellons (PGP)
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