Precise JavaScript Serialization with ResurrectJS

One of the problems I needed to solve while writing my 7DRL was serializing the game’s entire state for a future restore. It needed to automatically save the game so that the player could close their browser/tab and continue the game later from where they left off. I attempted to use HydrateJS, but finding it inadequate for the task I rolled my own solution from scratch.

After the week ended, I ripped my solution out of the game, filled in the rest of the missing features, and created a precise serialization library called ResurrectJS. It can do everything HydrateJS is meant to do and more: Dates, RegExps, and DOM objects.

It works with all the major browsers, including You Know Who.

To demonstrate, here’s another Greeter prototype.

function Greeter(name) { = name;
Greeter.prototype.greet = function() {
    return "Hello, my name is " +;

var kelsey = new Greeter('Kelsey');
// => "Hello, my name is Kelsey"

ResurrectJS can serialize kelsey for storage, including behavior. I’m creating new Resurrect objects each time just to show that this definitely works across different instances. Nothing up my sleeves! There’s no reason to avoid reusing Resurrect objects because the only state they maintain between method calls is their configuration.

var string = null;
string = new Resurrect().stringify(kelsey);
// => '[{"#":"Greeter","name":"Kelsey"}]'

// => {"name":"Kelsey","#id":null}

Notice that the serialization format is a bit unusual: it’s wrapped in an array. It’s still a valid JSON encoding. Also notice that kelsey gained a new property, #id, assigned to null, but this property was not encoded. I’ll explain all this below.

Here’s object resurrection.

var zombie = null;
zombie = new Resurrect().resurrect(string);
// => {"#":"Greeter","name":"Kelsey"}

// => "Hello, my name is Kelsey"

zombie === kelsey;  // A whole new object
// => false

The resurrected object has a # property. As explained before this is used to link the object back into the prototype chain so that its behavior is restored.

What’s special now, which I didn’t need in my game, is that identity, including circularity, is properly maintained! For example,

var necromancer = new Resurrect();
necromancer.stringify([kelsey, kelsey]);
// => '[[{"#":1},{"#":1}],{"#":"Greeter","name":"Kelsey"}]'

var array = necromancer.resurrect(string);
array[0] === array[1];
// => true

The encoding should begin to reveal itself now. There’s only one Greeter object serialized and two {'#': 1} objects — references into the top-level array.

Identity and Equality Review

Just to make sure everyone’s on the same page I’m going to go over the difference between identity and equality. Identity is referential: testing for it is effectively comparing memory pointers. Equality is structural: testing for it walks the structures recursively.

In JavaScript the === operator tests equality for primitive values (numbers, strings) and identity for objects.

2 === 2;
// true, these values are equal

({foo: 2} === {foo: 2});
// false, these are equal but different object instances

JavaScript has no operator for testing object equality and writing a function to do the job is surprisingly complicated. Underscore.js has such a function and it’s about 100 lines of code.

JSON maintains object equality but not object identity. Due to the former it can be used to fake an equality test.

Object.prototype.equals = function(that) {
    return JSON.stringify(this) === JSON.stringify(that);

({foo: 2}).equals({foo: 2});
// => true

However, keys are encoded in insertion order, so this is really fragile. Bencode would be better suited (sorted keys), except that it supports few of JavaScript’s types.

({a: 1, b: 2}).equals({b: 2, a: 1});
// => false (incorrect), due to ordering

ResurrectJS extends JSON to maintain identity as well as equality across serialization. It does so through the use of references, as explained below.

In functional languages, such as Haskell or most of Clojure, there is little to no practical distinction between these two concepts. When objects are immutable it makes no difference to a program if they are identical. Everything is a value.

Serialization Algorithm

The clever algorithm used by ResurrectJS was thought up by Brian while I discussing the problem with him. Unlike HydrateJS, the serialized form doesn’t follow the original structure’s form. While walking the data structure, copies of objects are placed into an array as they’re visited. When an object is first seen, it is tagged with an #id property corresponding to the copy’s position in the array. If we come across an object with a non-null #id we know we’ve seen it before and skip over it.

Most importantly, these copies don’t actually have any direct references to other objects. Instead these properties are replaced with references to objects in other positions in the array. Primitive, non-object values aren’t referenced like this. They’re left in place and encoded as part of the object copy.

I’m using the word “object” broadly here to include Arrays. Objects and Arrays are composite and everything else are atoms/values. Composites are things that are made up of atoms, so they need to be taken apart before serialization.

When walking the data structure is complete, the program walks the copy array and sets the #id properties of the original objects to null. This prevents them from being mistaken as already-visited by future ResurrectJS walks (and this was one of HydrateJS’s flaws). If the cleanup config option is set to true, these #id properties are completely removed with delete, which has performance implications for those objects.

Finally, the copy array is serialized by JSON.stringify(). That’s it! Because objects are identified by their position in the copy array they don’t need identifiers attached to them when encoded.

In the array example above {'#': 1} is a reference to the second object in the copy array. The first object in the copy array is the original array being serialized. For example, here’s a circular reference,

var circle = [];
// => '[[{"#":0}]]'

The first object in the copy array is an array that contains a reference to itself.

JSON doesn’t support undefined but I get it for free with this scheme: any time I come across undefined I replace it with a reference to the object at index -1. This will always be undefined!

string = necromancer.stringify([undefined]);
// => '[[{"#":-1}]]'


To deserialize, the string is parsed as regular JSON resulting in the final copy array, which is walked. Prototypes are properly linked and references are replaced with the appropriate object from the array. The first object in the array is the root of the data structure (the very first object seen during serialization), so it is returned as the result. Simple!

Special Values

ResurrectJS handles Dates automatically, treating them as atomic values.

var object = {date: new Date(Math.pow(10, 12))};
string = necromancer.stringify(object);
// => '[{"date":{"#.":"Date","#v":["2001-09-09T01:46:40.000Z"]}}]'

// => "Sat Sep 08 2001 21:46:40 GMT-0400 (EDT)"

When the program comes across one of these special values, a “constructor” object is placed in the copy. On deserialization, not only are references restored, but special values are also reconstructed. The #. field indicates the constructor and the #v field provides the constructor’s arguments as an array. Applying a constructor was a non-trivial issue.

A consequence of treating Dates as values is that ResurrectJS doesn’t maintain their identity. Having the same Date in two places on a data structure will result in two different date objects after deserialization.

var date = new Date();
string = necromancer.stringify([date, date]);
array = necromancer.resurrect(string);
array[0] === array[1];
// => false

If the user was intending on mutating the Date and having it update Dates (the same one) elsewhere in the structure, this will break it. In my opinion, people mutating Dates deserve whatever is coming to them.

Here’s a RegExp being serialized,

string = necromancer.stringify(/abc/i);
// => '{"#.":"RegExp","#v":["abc","i"]}'

// => true

If you were watching carefully you might notice there’s no wrapper array. If an atomic value is stringified directly then the copy array process is not performed.

Here’s one of the most interesting values to serialize: a DOM element.

var h1 = document.createElement('h1');
h1.innerHTML = 'Hello';
// => '{"#.":"Resurrect.Node","#v":["<h1>Hello</h1>"]}'

// (the heading appears on the page)

It uses XMLSerializer to serialize the DOM element into XML. The counterpart to XMLSerializer is DOMParser, but, unfortunately, DOMParser is near useless. Instead I create a wrapper div, shove the string in as innerHTML, and pull the DOM element out. It works beautifully.


The Resurrect constructor accepts a configuration object. Check the documentation for all of the details. It lets you control the prefix used for the intrusive property names, in case you need # for yourself. You can control prototype relinking and post-serialization cleanup, as mentioned before.

necromancer = new Resurrect({
    prefix: '__',
    cleanup: true,
    revive: false

I’m really quite proud of how this library turned out. As far as I know it’s the only library that can actually do all this. It’s tempting to pull it into Skewer so that it can transmit data structures between Emacs Lisp and JavaScript as perfectly as possible, but I’m afraid that the properties I’m adding during serialization are too intrusive.

Have a comment on this article? Start a discussion in my public inbox by sending an email to ~skeeto/ [mailing list etiquette] , or see existing discussions.

This post has archived comments.

null program

Chris Wellons (PGP)
~skeeto/ (view)